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  • నాభీ-హృత్-కంఠ-రసా-నాసాదుల యందు శోభిల్లు సప్తస్వర -
  • మనసూ స్వాధీనమైన ఘనునికి మరిమంత్ర తంత్రము లేల -
  • సంగీత జ్ఞ్యానము భక్తివినా సన్మార్గము గలదే ఓ మనసా - త్యాగరాజస్వామి.
  • कला क्या है ? यह इंसान की रचनात्मक आत्मा की यथार्थ के पुकार के प्रति प्रतिक्रिया है. - रबिन्द्रनाथ टैगोर ||
  • आत्मा का संगीत ब्रह्माण्ड द्वारा सुना जा सकता है||संगीत दो आत्माओं के बीच के अनंत को भरता है. – रबिन्द्रनाथ टैगोर ||
  • నాదోపాసన చే శంకర, నారాయణ విదులు వెలసిరి ఓ మనసా - త్యాగరాజస్వామి.
  • ప్రాణా ఆనాలా సమ్యోగము వలన ప్రణవ నాదమే సప్తస్వరములై బరగే - త్యాగరాజస్వామి.
  • “Music is the mediator between the spiritual and the sensual life.” ― Ludwig van Beethoven
  • “Music is my religion.” ― Jimi Hendrix
  • Sa Shadja (षड्ज) six-born peacock mūlādhāra मूलाधार (base of spine) Ganapati
  • Re Rishabha (ऋषभ) bull Bull svādhiṣṭhāna स्वाधिष्ठान (genitals) Agn
  • Ga Gandhara (गान्धार) sky goat maṇipūra मणिपूर (solar plexus and navel) Rudra (Shiva)
  • Ma Madhyama (मध्यम) middle dove/heron anāhata अनाहत (heart) Vishnu
  • Pa Panchama (पञ्चम) fifth cuckoo/nightingale viśuddha विशुद्ध (throat) Naarada
  • Dha Dhaivata (धैवत) earth Horse ājñā आज्ञा (third eye) Sadasiva )
  • Ni Nishadam (निषाद) hunter elephant sahasrāra सहस्रार (crown of the head) Surya (Sun)
  • vīṇāvādana tattvajñaḥ śrutijātiviśāradaḥ tālajñaścāprayāsena mokṣamārgaṃ niyacchati
  • కర్ణాటక సంగీతమనగా చెవిలోని కర్ణభేరికి వచ్చిచేరే ఇంపైన శబ్దముల సముదాయము.
  • All one's life is music, if one touches the notes right and in time. -John Ruskin.
  • किसी बच्चे की शिक्षा अपने ज्ञान तक सीमित मत रखिये, क्योंकि वह किसी और समय में पैदा हुआ है.
  • సమాచారం కాదు జ్ఞానం, వివేకం కాదు నిజం, నిజం కాదు సౌందర్యం సంగీతం మాత్రమే నిజం.
  • Learning to trust is one of life’s most difficult tasks.
  • ఎక్కడైతే మాటల్లో పదాలు మూగబోతాయో అక్కడే సంగీతం ప్రారంభమవుతుంది.
  • “ Music is ... A higher revelation than all Wisdom & Philosophy ”- Ludwig van Beethoven
  • कला में व्यक्ति खुद को उजागर करता है कलाकृति को नहीं.
  • "నిశ్శబ్దం తరువాత, మాటల్లో చెప్పడానికి వీలుకాని వ్యక్తీకరణకు సమీపంలో సంగీతం ఉంది."
  • “The only escape from the miseries of life are music. and Music is the universal language of mankind.”
  • సంగీతం ఆత్మ యొక్క వెల్లడిలో ఉంది, సంగీతం మానవజాతి సార్వత్రిక భాష.
  • भरोसा करना सीखना जीवन के सबसे कठिन कार्यों में से एक है।
  • Love music, drink music, eat music think in music enjoy the music it is a grate magic- Parthasarathy
  • సంగీతం ఆత్మయొక్క బాధల్ని బహిర్గతంచేసి, శాంతిని నింపుతుంది, కలహాల్నిరద్దుచేస్తుంది.
  • Music washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life.
  • నా అన్న మనుషులు ఎవరూ నాతో లేక పోయినా సంగీతం నా అంతరాత్మ గా నిలిచింది.
  • “ The music is not in the notes, but in the silence between.” - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • "क्योंकि यह लोगों को बदल सकते हैं संगीत दुनिया को बदल सकते हैं."
  • “Music can change the world because it can change people.”
  • Sound of music is physics, feel or expressive way of music is chemistry,
  • laya or tala is maths, Breadth control, posture is meditation, singing lyric is literature.
  • Our subcription details are updated in Contribute column dont follow the image on home page.
  • Music creates, improves and visualize your inteletual skils, join and learn music.
Up Coming Events

Our Quarterly Music program in the month of June on 24th @ Venkateswaraswamy temple, Soubhagyapuram, Kottapet, Hyd.


<p>One of the best Carnatic music voal Guru and concert artist in our Twin Cities&nbsp;is Mr N Ch Pardhasaradhi it is aplesure to join their daughters Chi Saarani and Amrutavarshini. I wish them all the succes in their future.&nbsp;</p>

K. Ramachry



BA music. sir enni samvastarala nundi music Guru kosam vetukutunnam. pls contact me


Music Lerner


Dear Sir Pardhasaradhi garu We are proud to associate with Sarani Music trust. We are very enjoiying your class the way you teaching. We will be with you always to promote the activities of the trust. Thanking you

Madhavi & Bhat

Sir, pardasaradigaru, this is d.s.k.sarma from vsp sir how will meet you this is is phone no.


I am very proud to be associate with its a grate service to the world or music. I personally thanking Sri Pardhasaradhi about his dedication towards his contribution.

Sujatha - Infosis

Namaskaram Sri Kolanka Venkataraju garu is known as great mridangist Bust he is good sculpture. In chikkadapally, Hyderbad sri tyagaraja swamy statue made by sri venkata raju garu.

srinivasa rao

Hello Guruji Namaskaaram, I am very happy to see the website and it is a grate job and educating in music. Like this nobody not doing any thing. As a member my daughter has become a student and associate with Saarani Muaic Educational Trust happy and proud to inform to my near and dear. I am also going to become a big donor for the cause of music to our Trust

PV Varadarajan IPS-Chennai

I was lucky to have Guru as wonderful as you are. Wishing you a Teachers Day that's full of joyous moments!

Yasaswi Nandavareek

The way you teach..The knowledge you share.. The care you take..The love you shower.. Makes you..The world's best teacher.. Happy Teacher's Day

Satya Yamini, Bhuvan Kruti

Dear Teacher, Thank You For Continually Inspires me to do my best You help me strive for goals, I found guidance, friendship, discipline and love, everything, in one person. And that person is you Happy Teacher's Day


Dear teacher, Thanks for supporting and enlightening all my way.If only I could have your blessing for a lifetime, I would succeed the way I have done always. Have a wonderful Teachers Day.

Damini & Mounima

Mr. Parthasarathy worked as a producer in our team i know him personally. I proud to say it is a grate honer to our organisation to have such a grate person in our team.

Associated Media Company.

Online tuition through live video chat devices is becoming a popular medium of learning Indian classical music and instruments in the Western world and beyond Many foreign students are either professional musicians in their own countries, or trying to establish themselves in the world of music and dance. An American says he is learning ragas "from Parthasarathy with a view to improvising and using it whenever I can in jazz. It'll give me an edge". Youthful Parthasarathy at his home town Hyderabad quickly established himself in classical singing. Today he is a leading online teacher of classical singing. He works alongside a group of teachers to impart training to eager students overseas. India once had a great tradition of disciples learning at the feet of their gurus. That tradition seems to have been revived - in virtual world - thanks to technology.

International Channel news

Dear Guruvugaaru Parthasarathi garu Namaskaram. Sir you are really grate sir. Your website is very informative and excellent. As a music director i proudly announce you are my one of guru. I wish you all the best and hope you will bring many students like me.

Gantadi Krishna- Music Director

Dear Parthasarathy You are doing a grate job. As a colleague in music teacher training course i learn so many raga's and many things about music. I support you and i wish you all the best to your trust worthy job. As a music director i am proud to announce that you are one of my best friend.

KM Radhakrishnan-Music Director

ఈ గురు పౌర్ణమి మీవంటి గురువులకి సుభాన్ని చేకూర్చి ఆనందాన్ని ఐశ్వర్యాన్ని ఇచ్చి మరింత మంది శిష్యులను తయారు చెయతానికి శక్తిని కలిగించాలని, ఎంతోమంది మీ ఆశీర్వాదాన్ని పొందాలని కోరుతూ మీ

Sahiti, Yasaswi, Ganesh etc.

This is a very good Website that all kinds music related people information is available hear. I appreciate Mr.Partha sarathy is doing a grate service to the world of Telugu music people. I wish you all the best to the team and i am proud to announce Mr.Partha Sarathy will be honored greatly.


మీరు సంగీత లోకానికి గర్వకారణం. కళారంగం లోనివారందరికీ ఆదర్శం, నిజమైన గురువు ఏమి ఆశించడని, అది మీరూపంగా తలుస్తూ మీ ఈ సేవ ప్రపంచ వ్యాప్తి కావలని కొరుతూ...........

Siva Prasad - Chirala

Dear friends, Mr.Parthasarathy N Ch famous guru. He is a grate performer and scholarly musician. His style of training is extraordinary in each and every aspect. He is providing free music training classes through Saarani Music Educational Trust. The classes are conducting at Vijaypuri Bhavan, Behind Reliance Petrol Bunk, Vijaypuri Colony, Kothapet, Hyderabad. Please send your children they will improve singing as well as many other useful aspects.

Sri K. Ramachary (LMA)

This Site is very informative and good for music students. People can add your testimonials and give kind suggestions to us.

Paramita - Student

అనేకమంది విద్యార్థులకు సంగీతాన్ని ఇలా చేరువ చేయడం మీవంటి వారికే సాధ్యం ఎందుకంటే భగవంతుడు ఆసించకుండా సేవచెసే మనసు ఇచ్చాడు. మీ సారణి సంగీతవిద్యా మరియు సేవాసంస్థ మరింత అభివృద్ధిచెంది అనేకమంది విద్యార్థులకు సంగీత అక్షయపాత్రకావాలని ఆశిస్థూ మీ కార్యక్రామాలకి నావంతు సహకారం ఎప్పుడూ వుంటుందని తెలుపుతూ.

రామక్రిష్ణ దేవరకొ

Guru Vakyam Mantra moolam guru vakyam it is said. This means the words of the Guru are to be taken as sacred mantra. Partha Sarathy was one of the most progressive and liberal minded Gurus that one could have the good fortune to meet. He had the unique ability of being able to convey the most profound philosophical concepts thru simple and everyday parables and examples. This series will attempt to reproduce some of Partha sarathy's own words and sayings on various matters regarding Music with meditation, spirituality, bhakti and sadhna, etc..

Akkiraju Vijayalakshmi

सरीमाना पार्था सारथ्य जी आप सारानी म्युज़िक ट्रस्ट से बहुथ अच्चा काम करराहा है | उचिता संगीत सिक्षना करना आज कल बहुथ मुश्कील है | मै तो आप का वेबसैट देखी ती | मै आपका ट्रस्ट को नाम पे चेक भेजा | भविस्यमे हमारा संपूर्ण सहकार ,सहायता आपके साथ है ||

सुनन्दा सेखर - न्यू

I appreciate your non-profit music education trust. encourage them and expose them to more music and greatly admire your efforts to provide music programs to children at your trust.

Sandeep Narayan

Dear Sri Parthasarathy guruji We are aware of doing the service of the SAARANI music trust. We are there with you and happy to give our full support to the activities of the trust. Not only an artist you have proved yourself as grate teacher, guru, performer, orator in music.


అద్భుతంగా కచేరీ చేయటంతో పాటు, సంగీతాన్ని ఉచితంగా నేర్పించి శిష్యులను తయారు చేయటం లో N.C.పార్థసారథి వారధి లాగా పనిచేస్తున్న అతనికి మంచి భవిష్యత్తు కలిగి ఈ సేవ ద్వార మరింత మంచి పేరురావాలని ఆకాంక్షిస్తూ....

Sugnan - Vignanasamiti

గురువుగారు నమస్కారం మీ దయవల్ల నేను సర్టిఫికెట్ పరీక్షలో ప్రధమశ్రేణి లో పాస్అయ్యాను. ఇప్పుదు నేను US Pittsburgh లొ వుంటున్నా మీ వెబ్సైట్ చూసాను.'సారణీ' నాలాంటి సంగీత విద్యార్ధులైన మరింతమందికి నిలయమవ్వాలని కోరుతూ....

దీప్తి బోయిన

నమస్కారం పార్థసారథి గారు ఎంతోమంది ఎక్కువగా ఫీజు తీసుకుంటున్న ఈ రోజుల్లో మీరు చేస్తున్న ఈ సంగీత సేవ ముఖ్యంగా శాస్త్రీయ సంగీతానికి అద్వితీయమై అనిర్వచనీయమై అందరికీ మార్గదర్సకమవాలని అభిలాషిస్తూ మీ వెన్నంటి వుంటామని ప్రొత్సహిస్తూ....

జి.రాఘవేంద్రరావ్ -

"SAARANI"cultural trust has been formed with an aim to promote Indian classical music and dance amongst youth. The organization has been started in 2010 and has since then teaching free music training and conducting several programs including music competitions, Thyagaraja aradhana festival and so on. We welcome your contribution for the cause. The profound objectives of “SAARANI” can be transformed into a beautiful reality only with your whole heated participation co-operation and support. Kindly strengthen our hands by contributing towards the corpus.

Member of the Trust.

దైవమైన చూపలేడు మంచి గురువుని - మంచి గురువైతే చూపగలడు దేవదేవుని - గురుబ్రహ్మః గురువిష్ణుః గురుదేవో మహేశ్వరః అన్నట్లు మీ ఈ సేవ ప్రపంచ వ్యాప్తము కావాలని ఆశిస్తూ,ఆశీర్వదిస్తూ....

సూరిబాబు, విజయవాడ

మా గురువుగారి తమ్ముడి కుమారుడు, నా బంధువైన నల్లాన్ చక్రవర్తుల పార్థసారథి చేస్తున్న ఈ సేవ తెలుగు సంగీతలోకానికే మైలురాయికావాలని ఆశిస్తూ, ఆశిర్వదిస్తూ... మరింతమంది తెలుగువారు అతనికి హార్థికంగా, ఆర్థికంగా ప్రొత్సాహాన్ని ఇవ్వగలరని కోరుతూ......


Dear Parthasarathy, This is a very good site. Somebody referred this to me and to my astonishment, this is designed with the aim of upholding the dignity of music. Long live this site and your service.

Modudi Sudhaker

This class is very interesting and me as a daughter of Parthasarathi, sir i am feeling very happy I am not feeling like a daughter but as a student I am learning so-many useful things for my singing and SMET is my favorite place ever i visited so I as a student i am very fortunate SWARA... SAARANI..

Saarani N.C

Respected Parthasarathy sir, We, as parents of Bhavana feel that it is our lucky to step into SMET. We thank u for giving an opportunity to Bhavana to be a part of this prestigious academy.


Dear Parthasarathy garu, It is indeed a great achievement for us released an Audio C.D. "Bhagavata Geyamaalika" with your melodious voice and all your support and guidance. It is all happened because of your blessings, hope you would extend the same co-operation in future also. We wish you all success for a grate service to world of music. Thanks once again

JBT Sundari-Vijag

Respected Parthasarathy sir, We, as parents of Sreeja feel that it is our poorva janma sukrutham to step into SMET.We thank u for giving an opportunity to Sreeja to be a part of this prestigious academy.


Dear Parthasarathy Sir, The INSPIRATION program was really a good delight to eyes and ears. Children got motivated as well as parents. We all were overwhelmed with joy to be a part of it as SMET members. Parents are lucky to be blessed with a marvellous & wonderful kids. We thank u very much sir for giving us such kind of opportunities.

Harini Paidipalli

Dear Parthasarathy garu, The INSPIRATION programme was really a good delight to eyes and ears. Children got motivated as well as parents. We all were overwhelmed with joy to be a part of it as SAARANI members. ADITYA's parents are lucky to be blessed with a marvelous & wonderful kid. we thank u very much sir for giving us opportunity to have a glimpse of good & well brought up child who inspired lots and lots of people. MAY GOD BLESS him in his future endeavors

- Jaya Ramanath

My beloved Student Chi Parthasarathy is doing a grate service to the world of Music. I wish him all the best and success. Kindly come and support all musicians and music lovers.

Sri D.Sehachary - Hyd-Bros.

డియర్ ఫార్థసారథి గారు మీరు చేస్తున్న ఈ కళాసేవ అద్భుతం అనిర్వచనీయం, నాకు సంగీతం అంటే ప్రాణం, ఇంకా మరెందరో గాయనీ గాయకులను తీర్చిదిద్దాలని అశిస్తూ.....

Ravi Pendekanti

Hi everybody, I would like to share my feelings with all of you. Recently we attended my nephew's marriage. In that function," when the bride's parents are sending their daughter to bridegroom's house", Chy.Manaswini sang "AMMA DONGA NINNU CHOODAKUNTE....." song. She sang very nicely and we are very happy that u are doing a grate service to the world of music

Prabhaker - USA


Tala Dhasa Pranas, the most important in Carnatic Sangeeth - Music

Dhasa means 10 and prana means inherent dynamic force. So, "Tala Dhasa Prana" is 10 stages of the dynamic force inherent in tala.In other words, there are 10 elements of tala. So, tala starts from an invisible stage and naturally attains a visible stage that canbe perceived by senses. The invisible stage of tala has to be realized just like we realize our Self -Atma, Almighty, Universe and so on....

I will put it forward like this: "If you can very well determine the shape of Wind or the supreme form of Lord Siva, the expanse of the Universe, magnitude of pleasure of flute or the Essence of Vedas, you can define properly the tala intricacies". This means, definition in material terms is impossible in all these above elements in this universe. One should go beyond the senses to realize the subtle nature.Similarly, the subtle nature of talas must be realized and only the outward manifestation of talas can be defined. This act is similar todrawing a small portion of water from ocean with a small container. This small portion of tala as understood by many stars in this field
is explained below. The tala pranas are,

1. Kaalam 2. Maargam 3. Kriyai 4. Angam 5. Graham 6. Jaathi 7. Kalai 8. Layam 9. Yathi 10.Prastharam.
Everything is rhythm. Sunset, Sunrise, Earths rotation and revolution etc..., is rhythm of nature.Now let us see the rhythm of talas as manifested into 10 stages as listed above.

1. Kaalam: Kalam consists of 10 stages again. They are,
(a). Kanam (b). Lavam (c). Kaashtam (d). Nimisham (E). Thudi (F). Dhrutham (G). Lagu (H). Guru (I). Plutham (J). Kaakapaadham.
Kanam: Time is normally understood in terms of seconds, minutes and hours. Now let us take the "seconds". Let us assume that wedivide a second into 8 sub-divisions. Each of this is sub divided by 8 again and this small sub divided unit is further sub divided into 8divisions.This part of sub divided unit can only be perceived mentally and physical sign of this time cannot be shown. This minutest timeis said to be "Kanam".Kanam is further understood by the following experiment. 100 Lotus petals are taken together and a needle is piercedthrough the petals.The time taken for the needle to pass through one petal to the other is known as "kanam". When kanam is understood,
the other 9 stages
can be tabled as below:
8 such kanam = 1 Lavam
8 such Lavam = 1Kaashtam
8 such Kaashtam = 1Nimisham
8 such Nimishams = 1 Thudi
2 such Thudis = 1 Dhrutham
2 such Dhruthams = 1 Laghu
2 such Laghu = 1 Guru
3 such Laghus = 1 Plutham
4 such Laghus = 1 Kaakapadham
Only from "Nimisham" onwards one can physically recon the tala parts. The first three time units shown in the table can only be imagined and understood by going beyond our five senses.
2. Maargam (also spelled as Maarkam, Margam): The way tala is put into applications is called Maargam. There are six ways that determines the tempo or speed of music. They are,
(a). Thakshanam: For one Akshara main count or tala unit, there are 8 minor units or seconds. The 8 minor units make the speed Kalai, that is, 8 Mathras in one tala unit (Kalai).
(b). Vaarthikam: 4 Matharas for one Akshara.
(c). Chithram: 2 Mathras for one akshara.
(d). Chitra Tharam: 1 Mathra for one Akshara
(e). Chithra Thamam: 1/2 Mathra for one Akshara. As tala syllable or swara cannot split, one has to use 2 fast syllables for one akshara.
(f). Athi Chithra Thamam: 1/4 mathara for one Akshara. In this case one has to use 4 fast syllables for one Akshara.

3. Kriyai: Kriyai is a physical action that is sub divided into two. One is "Maargam" (another kind) and the other is "Desiyam". This maarkam is of two kinds. One is "Shabdha Maargam" and the other is "Nishabdha Maargam". Shabdha Maargam is further divided into four types. They are,
(a). Dhruva - produce sound by Thumb and Middle finger (Chitigai).
(b). Samya - Beat over the right palm with the left palm.
(c). Tala - Beat over the left palm with the right palm.
(d). Sannipata - Both palms strike together facing each other.
These kinds of talas are also used in "Kummiaattam".
Nishabdha Maargam is also of four kinds. They are,
(a). Avapa - Folding the fingers
(b). Nishkrama - Opening the folded fingers.
(c). Vikshepa - Moving hand to the right side.
(d). Pravesa - Bringing it back
In Nishabdha maargam, all the tala actions mentioned above are performed without producing any sound.
Desiyam: Desiyam is of 8 kinds. They are,
(a). Dhruvaka - Beat of hand
(b). Sarpini - Waving right palm to the right
(c). Krushya (also spelled as Krishya) - Stretch hand to the right(Waving the right palm from the above left to the right)
(d). Padmini - Turn hand, palm downwards
(e). Visarjita - Waving the hand outwards turning the Palm upwards
(f). Vikshiptham - Closing the fingers and bringing the hand towards Self
(g) Pathaka - Raise hand with hand upwards
(h). Patitta - Bring the hand downwards(back to horizontal position)
These varieties of tala are used in Folk dances called "Koothu Natanam".
Except Druvaka, all the 7 kriyas from Sarpini to Pathitham (Also spelled as Patita) do not produce any sound (nisabda kriyas) and so they are also known as "Baava Samignya Talas". These do not have practical relevance now. These are explained only for the purpose of preservation of ancient works on talas.
4. Anga: Anga is nothing but practical application of perceptible tala mentioned in the category "kaalam" that is, from Nimisham to Kaakapatham.Angam means "limb" or "Parts" of Tala. These limbs or parts constitute a Tala. Angams ( also spelled as Angas) are basically six. See the table below.
Anga Symbol Name Explanation
or Anudruta
Crescent Pirai
(Crescent Moon)
A beat(Dhruvaka)
Druta Full Moon Mathi (Full Moon) One beat and a turn of hand
(Dhruvakam and Visarjita)
Laghu l Kanai Beat (Druvaka) followed by
counting fingers according
to different units of jaathi
Guru S Villu(Bow) A Beat (Dhruvakam)and
Pathitham each followed by
counting fingers according to Jaathi
Plutham l
Aravam A beat (Dhruvakam),Sarpini
and Krishya each followed by
counting fingers according to
different units of Jaathi.
Kaakapaadham + Pulladi Sarpini, Krishya, Pataka, Pathitham
each followed by counting fingers
according to different units of Jaathi.
Kaakapaadham is rendered
without sound (NiSabda Anga)

Note that, only the first three Angas are used in "Suladi Sapta Talas" (Commonly known as "Sapta Talas") Combinations totaling 35 Talas, read topic "Saptha Talas". The other Angas namely Guru, Pluta and kakapata are used in talas known as "108 Talas" and other complicated talas that include "Simhanadhana Tala" which is the longest tala having 128 Aksharas. The first 5 Talas of 108 talas are known as "Maarga Talas" and also known as"Pancha Talas". The remaining 103 talas are known as "Desi Talas". There are 72 Melakartha Talas other than these talas. There were numerous combinations and varieties of talas in ancient days. All these talas have become obsolete and only Sapta Tala with jaathis combinations that give rise to 35 talas and Ghathi Bedha of 35 talas that give rise to 175 talas are in vogue today. Other talas are listed in this site just for the purpose of demonstration. There are other talas known as "Nava Talas", "Nava Saandhi Talas", "Abboorva Talas". The "Chanda Talas" are used in "Thiruppugazh" and the specialty of this tala is that, the talas are made to fit the lyrics, rhyme and stress of the song.In other words, the lyrics and rhyme are given importance which form different talas. Sage Arunagirinadhar is believed to have composed over 16000
songs and only 1365 songs have so far been traced. Coming back to Angam, let us see the combinations of Angams as listed in the tablebelow. The 6 Angams (shown in the table above) in combination with themselves give rise to 10 Angams, totaling to 16 Angams.The Ten Angas are shown,just for the purpose of history and demonstration. According to Talaprastara and its rules, it is said that these 10 Angas should not be rendered at allas tala. The other ten Angams are tabled below.
5. Graham: The place in a tala where the song begins is called "Graham". This is also known as "Eduppu". Eduppu means "starting Point". Eduppu can be two ways. One is "Samam" and the other is "Vishamam". When a song begins at the first beat of a tala, it is Samam. When song begins either before or after the stroke of tala, it is Vishamam. So, Vishamam can further be classified into two. They are, (a).Athitham: When the song begins first and that is followed by tala beat later, it is called "Athitha Eduppu". (b) Anaagatham: When a tala begins first and the song follows it later, it is called "Anaagatha Eduppu". In a song there can be both Athitham and Anaagatham, where it is called "Usi".
6. Jaathi: Jaathi is used to calculate the Akshara in a tala. "Lagu" part of a tala depends on this Jaathi and its counts (Aksharas)
vary according to the Jaathi. There are five jaathis.
1. Chatusram - 4 Akshara Counts
2. Thrisram (also spelled as Trisram) - 3 Akshara Counts
3. Misram - 7 Akshara Counts
4. Khandam (also spelled as Kandam) - 5 Akshara Counts
5. Sankeernam (also spelled as Sankirnam) - 9 Akshara Counts
7. Kalai: Before going to kalai we have to understand "Ghathi" (alternate spellings are Gati, Ghati and Gathi). Ghathi are five. They are Chatusram, Thrisram, Misram, Khandam(also spelled as Kandam) and Sankeernam (also spelled as Sankirnam). Gathi is a sub unit in a tala called "mathras" (also spelled as Matras, Matharas) that forms a particular rhythm or duration of each Akshara. When each Akshara of a lagu and other angas of a tala has only one count of sub unit (for example, thakadhimi), it is called "One Kalai". When the sub unit count doubles for each Akshara of a laghu and other Angas it is "Two Kalai" and so on.....
In Tamil it is known as "Oru Kalai" and "Rettai Kalai" respectively. For example, in Adi Tala, One Kalai shows 8 Beats and Two kalai shows 16 Beats. Akshara is defined as "one main unit of a tala". This one unit can be a beat, turn of hand or waving the hand depending on the Angas of a Tala. Ghathi is also known as "Nadai". So, Chathusra Nadai has 4 Matharas for each Akshara of a Tala. In the same way, Thrisra Nadai has 3 Mathras, Misra Nadai has 7 Mathras, kanda Nadai has 5 Mathras and Sankeerna Nadai has 9 Mathrasfor each Akshara respectively. Rendering a tala as per its Angas in full (one complete set or one Cycle) is called "Avarthana" (Alternate spelling are Avarta, Avartana).For example, Adi Tala is 8 Aksharas. When 8 Aksharas are rendered one time fully, it is 1 Avarthana.
If it is rendered twice it is 2 Avarthana and so on....So, in Adi tala, if it is Chatusra Nadai, the total Mathras in 1 Avarthana = 8x4=32 Mathras. If it is Thisra Nadai, it is 8x3=24 Mathras and so on....
8. Layam: Layam already exists even before tala manifested. So, Layam is primordial in nature. How do we understand this? See this Universe and understand the layam, is the answer. One cannot understand "layam" simply by studying in a University. We have to study in the City of this Universe to understand layam. Explore the subtle nature of this universe beyond our five senses and realize layam. Layam is invisible, yet by visible signs that it shows when it attains material plane, one can appreciate the concept. It is just like atoms giving rise to molecules and molecules giving rise to an object or any material form. See the Sun Rise and Sun set; See the Sea Waves which are guided by a subtle force that drives them in the universe in a particular rhythm. This rhythmic subtle force is layam. In the same way a subtle rhythmic force that drives and manifests itself into a material form that gives Music is called Layam.Layam is nothing but a unified dynamic force in a particular rhythm. Here rhythm means Universal rhythm of nature and not merely sound. Any thing that is unified and concentrated to establish   equilibrium is known as Layam. For example, we say temple as "Aalayam" (in Tamil). Why? At temple the subtle body (Mind and Atma) concentrates on a particular place. The oneness of mind and atma in that place is Layam here. So, Atma+Layam become "Alayam".In the same way music has a subtle body that is harmonious in nature. This harmony is needed to produce music. This harmony is layam. So, without layam there is no music. Sruthi is mother, Layam is father
and Tala is Guru, without which there is no music.
Tempo or Speed of music is determined by layam. It can be 3 kinds.
1. Chavukka Kaalam or Vilamba Kaalam (Slow)
2. Madhima kaalam (Medium) (Double that of Chavuka kaala).
3. Dhuritha Kaalam (fast) (Double that of Madhima kaala).
9. Yathi: Music is formed with the help of Swaras (Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni) and in South Indian Percussion Music especially in mridangam, it is formed by specific syllables Tha, Thi, Thom, Nam. These are basic Jathis ("a" in this word is pronounced shorter. This is not "Jaathi").  This forms the basis of all mridangam lessons. Apart from this, there are other syllables which are unique to the mridangam. They are Ta, Ri, Dhin, Thaam, Ka, Ki, Gu etc... The way the Tha, Thi Thom and Nam are used and pronounced in a lesson collectively to form a "word" depends on the style or "Paani" like Tanjore Style, Pudukkottai Style etc..., though the resultant music is almost same. For example "KitaThaka" and "Tharikita" are played in the same manner in many styles. So, some pronounce it as KitaThaka and some pronounce it as ThariKita. Yathi is nothing but arranging different groups of syllables into a beautiful combination that gives particular shape to music is called "Yathi" (alternate spelling is Yati). Yathi is of six kinds. They are, Samayathi, Vishama Yathi, Mridanga Yathi, Veda Madhyama Yathi, Gopucha Yathi, Srothovaka Yathi.
1. Sama Yathi: When all the syllables are equal in number for each Akshara as its ghathi, then it is called Sama Yathi. For Example, in Chatusra Jaathi Triputai Tala (Adi tala) with Chatusra Ghathi, 8 Aksharas are there and for each Akshara sub units 4 Matharas (Tha Ka Thi Mi) are equally implemented, it is Sama Yathi. In case of Thisra Ghathi, 3 Matharas (Tha Ki Ta) are equally implemented for each Akshara and so on with all the ghatis.
2. Vishama Yathi: The syllables are arranged in a jumbled way with ones imagination and the outcome can be in any shape is called Vishama Yathi. But this should be within the tala Sub units. For Example, in Adi tala with Chatusra ghathi, the total Sub units (matharas) are 32. So, the combination may be +4+7+9+3+4 or in any other combination but note that Chatusra ghathi is once more repeated to form 32 matharas.
3. Mridanga Yathi: The Syllable are arranged in such a way that it takes the shape of Mridangam. This is called Mridanga Yathi. The combination will have to be 4, 5, 7, 7, 5, 4.
4. Veda Madhyama Yathi: The syllables are arranged in such a manner that it is broad at both sides and tapers at the center like "Udukkai" or Damaru is called Veda Madhyama Yathi.
The syllables are 7, 5, 4, 4, 5, 7.
5. Gopucha Yathi (alternate spelling Gopucchayati): The syllables are arranged similar to Cows Tail, which is broad at the beginning (from top) and gradually tapering to the bottom. This is called Gopucha Yathi.
6. Srothovaka Yathi (alternate spelling Srotovahayati): The syllables are arranged in such a manner that it resembles the flow of river (river origin and its broad course). So it is short at the begining and gradually becomes broad (Opposite to Gopucha yathi) at the end.
This is called Srothovaka Yathi.
10. Prasthaaram: Prasthaaram(also spelled as Prastara) is calculation of groups of tala syllables in different angles for the purpose of easy tabulation. Prastara means Permutation. The permutation of finite and infinite kinds of Swara or Tala is known as "Prastara". With the help of Prastara one can determine the structure and serial number of a phrase or tala. There are ten kinds of Prasthaaram.
1. Nashtam: Group of Syllables form a "word". For example, "Thakathimi" is a group of syllables. Finding out how many such groups have occurred in that series of Avarthanas is called Nashta Prasthaaram.
2. Uthishtam: Finding out (in the same series above) the rank of the particular group of syllables is called Uithishtam. That is finding the ordinal of the particular group including repetition of the particular group in a series of Avarthna is Uthishta.
3. Paathaalam: Finding out how many times the shortest group of syllables has occurred is called Paathaala Prasthaaram.
4. Drutha Meru: Finding out how many times Dhrutham has occurred is called Dhrutha Meru.
5. Lagu Meru: Finding out how many times Lagu has occurred is called Lagu Meru.
6. Guru Meru: Finding out how many times Guru has occurred is called Guru Meru.
7. Plutha Meru: Finding out how many times Plutham has occurred is called Plutha Meru.
8. Samyoga Meru: Finding out how many Angas of equal number of syllables have come in a prasthaaram is called Samyoga Meru.
9. Kanta Prasthaaram: Interchanging the order of angas (without affecting its structure) while keeping the same sub units (matharas)
    and Aksharas within the series of Avarthanas is called Kanda Prasthaaram.
10. Yathi Prasthaaram: Calculation of such symmetrical phrases of Tala Syllables mentioned in the heading "Yathi" is Yathi Prasthaaram.
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